Opportunity Cost

You might wonder whether a traffic improvement plan is worth the cost and effort. That time and money could go into making improvements, rather than just planning them. The opportunities you give up when you choose an option are called the opportunity cost. If you choose to spend part of…... Read more

Combination of Factors

Detailed investigations of man-made catastrophes often show a chain of events leading to the incident. It is said that an incident happens when nine things go wrong, and a catastrophe occurs when ten things go wrong. Often breaking a link of the chain of events can prevent an accident. Highway…... Read more

Roads and Their Environment

To design a road to fit the needs, we need to know how it is used. These traffic characteristics include the types of traffic on the road, how many use the road on an average day, and how fast they travel. Functional class Roads are classified based on the role…... Read more

Road Safety Basics

To reduce traffic accidents, we need to understand what causes them. The highway transportation system can be broken down into three broad categories: the driver; the vehicle; and the road and its environment. Factors that help cause accidents usually fit into one of those categories. Most accidents have at least…... Read more


Highway departments do not control the vehicle aspects that contribute to highway accidents. Other parts of federal and state government have that function. At the highway department level, the types of vehicles that use the road affect many road design decisions. For example, tractor- trailers need more room to turn…... Read more

Drivers and Other Road Users

Section 152 of the New York State Vehicle and Traffic Law defines traffic as, “Pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, bicycles and other conveyances either singly or together while using any highway for purposes of travel.” While motor vehicles are usually the largest group, others have the right to use…... Read more

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